Pathogenic Bacteria

Bacteria and Mold

Many types of bacteria have synergistic growth with mold / fungi in indoor water damaged environments. These "pathogenic" (disease causing in human beings) bacteria are commonly overlooked by medical and environmental professionals. When bacteria is present with fungi or yeast a co-exposure (more than one pathogen is present in the patient) is highly likely. Some pathogenic species of bacteria commonly found in indoor water damaged and mold contaminated environments are listed below:

Acinetobacter baumanii (Family Moraxellaceae) 
Actinobacillus spp. (Family Pasteurellaceae) 
Actinomycetes (actinomycetes, streptomycetes) 


Actinomyces
Actinomyces israelii 
Actinomyces naeslundii 
Actinomyces spp. 
Aeromonas spp.(Family Aeromonadaceae) 
Aeromonas hydrophila 
Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria (Aeromonas sobria) 
Aeromonas caviae 
Anaerobes, Non-Spore Forming 
Gram-Positive Anaerobic Cocci Peptostreptococcus spp. 
Streptococcus spp.(see separate listing below) 
Gram-Negative Anaerobic Cocci 
Veillonella spp. 
Gram-Positive Anaerobic Bacilli 
Actinomycesspp. (actinomycetes) 
Actinomyces israelii 
Actinomyces naeslundii 
Mobiluncus spp. (Gram-positive cell wall, but stain Gram-negative or variable) 
Propionibacteriumacnes 
Lactobacillusspp. 
Eubacterium spp. 
Bifidobacterium spp. 
Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacilli 
Bacteroides spp.(see separate listing below) 
Prevotella spp. 
Porphyromonas spp. 
Fusobacterium spp. 


Bacillus spp.(Family Bacillaceae) 


Bacillus anthracis 
Bacillus cereus 
Bacillus subtilis 
Bacillus thuringiensis 
Bacillus stearothermophilus (used to test efficacy of autoclaves) 
Bacteroides spp.(Family Bacteroidaceae) 
Bacteroides fragilis (prototype endogenous anaerobic pathogen) 
Bordetella spp.
Bordetella pertussis 
Bordetella parapertussis 
Bordetella bronchiseptica 
Borrelia spp.(Order Spirochaetales; Family Spirochaetaceae) 
Borrelia recurrentis 
Borrelia burgdorferi 
Brucella spp.
Brucella abortus 
Brucella canis 
Brucella melintensis 
Brucella suis 
Burkholderia spp.(formerly classified as Pseudomonas) 
Burkholderia pseudomallei 
Burkholderia cepacia 
Campylobacter spp.
Campylobacter jejuni 
Campylobacter coli 
Campylobacter lari 
Campylobacter fetus 
Citrobacter spp. (Family Enterobacteriaceae)
Clostridium spp.
Clostridium perfringens 
Clostridium difficile 
Clostridium botulinum 
Corynebacterium spp.(actinomycetes with mycolic acids, Family Corynebacteriaceae) 
Corynebacterium diphtheriae 
Corynebacterium jeikeum 
Corynebacterium urealyticum 


Edwardsiella tarda (Family Enterobacteriaceae)
Enterobacter spp. (Family Enterobacteriaceae)
Family Enterobacteriaceae(clinically important enterics)


Citrobacter 
Citrobacter freundii  Citrobacter diversus 
Enterobacter spp. 
Enterobacter aerogenes 
Enterobacter agglomerans 
Enterobacter cloacae 
Escherichia coli
Opportunistic Escherichia coli 
ETEC = enterotoxigenic E. coli 
EIEC = enteroinvasive E. coli 
EPEC = enteropathogenic E. coli 
EHEC = enterohemorrhagic E. coli 
EaggEC = enteroaggregative E. coli 
UPEC = uropathogenic E. coli 
Klebsiella spp. 
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Klebsiella oxytoca 
Morganella morganii 
Proteusspp. 
Proteus mirabilis 
Proteus vulgaris 
Providencia spp. 
Providencia alcalifaciens 
Providencia rettgeri 
Providencia stuartii 
Salmonella spp.
Salmonella enterica (proper nomenclature; encompasses all Salmonella; 
taxonomically only one species of Salmonella) 
Common nomenclature still in use: 
Salmonella typhi 
Salmonella paratyphi 
Salmonella enteritidis 
Salmonella cholerasuis 
Salmonella typhimurium 
Serratia spp. 
Serratia marcesans 
Serratia liquifaciens 
Shigella spp.
Shigella dysenteriae 
Shigella flexneri 
Shigella boydii 
Shigella sonnei 
Yersinia spp.
Yersinia enterocolitica 
Yersinia pestis 
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis 


Enterococcus spp.(Lancefield Group D specific carbohydrate) (gamma 
hemolytic, occasionally alpha or beta) (formerly classified as Group D 


streptococci) 
Enterococcus faecalis 
Enterococcus faecium 
Ervsipelothrix rhusopathiae
Escherichia coli(Family Enterobacteriaceae) 
Opportunistic Escherichia coli 
ETEC = enterotoxigenic E. coli 
EIEC = enteroinvasive E. coli 
EPEC = enteropathogenic E. coli 
EHEC = enterohemorrhagic E. coli 
EaggEC = enteroaggregative E. coli 
UPEC = uropathogenic E. coli
Francisella tularensis
Haemophilus spp.(Family Pasteurellaceae) 
Haemophilus injluenzae 
Haemophilus ducreyi 
Haemophilus aegyptius 
Haemophilus parainjluenzae 
Haemophilus haemolyticus 
Haemophilus parahaemolyticus 
Helicobacter spp.
Helicobacter pylori 
Helicobacter cinaedi 
Helicobacter fennelliae 
Klebsiella pneumoniae(Family Enterobacteriaceae) 
Legionella pneumophila
Leptospira interrogans(Order Spirochaetales; Family Leptospiraceae) 
 
Serogroups: 


canicola 
pomona 
icterohaemorrhagiae 
Listeria monocytogenes
Micrococcus spp.(Family Micrococcaceae) 
Moraxella catarrhalis(taxonomic confusion) (Family Moraxellaceae or Family 
Neisseriaceae) 
Formerly classified as Neisseria 
More recently classified as Branhamella 
Morganella spp. (Family Enterobacteriaceae)
Mycobacterium spp.(actinomycetes with mycolic acids, Family 
Mycobacteriaceae) 
Mycobacterium leprae 
Mycobacterium tuberculosis 
Nocardia spp.(actinomycetes with mycolic acids, Family Nocardiaceaei 
Nocardia asteroides 
Nocardia brasiliensis 
Neisseria spp.(Family Neisseriaceae) 
Neisseria gonorrhoeae 
Neisseria meningitidis 
Pasteurella multocida(Family Pasteurellaceae) 
Plesiomonas shigel/oides(Family Plesiomonadaceae) 
Propionibacterium acnes 
Proteus spp. (Family Enterobacteriaceae)
Proteus vulgaris 
Proteus mirabilis 
Providencia spp. (Family Enterobacteriaceae)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa(Family Pseudomonadaceae) 
Rhodococcus spp. (actinomycetes with mycolic acids, Family Nocardiaceae) 
Salmonella spp.(Family Enterobacteriaceae) 
Salmonella enterica (proper nomenclature; encompasses all Salmonella; 
taxonomically only one species of Salmonella) 
Common nomenclature still in use: 
Salmonella typhi 
Salmonella paratyphi 
Salmonella enteritidis 
Salmonella cholerasuis 
Salmonella typhimurium 
Serratia marcescens (Family Enterobacteriaceae)
Shigella spp.(Family Enterobacteriaceae) 
Shigella dysenteriae 
Shigella flexneri 
Shigella boydii 
Shigella sonnei 
Staphylococcus spp.(Family Micrococcaceae) (catalase positive) 
Staphylococcus aureus (coagulase-positive) 
Staphylococcus epidermidis( coagulase-negative) 
Staphylococcus saprophyticus (coagulase-negative) 
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
Originally classified as Pseudomonas 
More recently classified as Xanthomonas 


Streptococcus pneumoniae(no group specific carbohydrate) (alpha hemolytic)
Streptococcus spp.(FAMILY Streptococcaceae) (catalase negative) 


Group A streptococci (beta hemolytic) 
Streptococcus pyogenes 
Group B streptococci (beta hemolytic, occasionally alpha or gamma) 
Streptococcus agalactiae 
Group C streptococci (beta hemolytic, occasionally alpha or gamma) 
Streptococcus anginosus 
Streptococcus equismilis 
Group D streptococci (alpha or gamma hemolytic, occasionally beta) 
Streptococcus bovis 
Group F streptococci (beta hemolytic) 
Streptococcus anginosus 
Group G streptococci (beta hemolytic) 
Streptococcus anginosus 
Viridans streptococci (no group specific carbohydrate) (alpha or gamma 
hemolytic) 
Streptococcus mutans 
Streptococcus salivarius group 
Streptococcus sanguis group 
Streptococcus mitis group 
Streptococcus milleri group 
Streptomyces spp.( actinomycetes, streptomycetes) 
Treponema spp.(Order Spirochaetales; Family Spirochaetaceae) 
Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum 
Treponema pallidum ssp. endemicum 
Treponema pallidumssp. pertenue 
Treponema carateum 
 
Vibrio spp.(Family Vibrionaceae) 
Vibrio cholerae Serogroups 01 and 0139 that produce specific cholera enterotoxin 
are responsible for classic cholera epidemics 
Vibrio cholerae 01 (Serogroup 01) Biotypes: 


1. cholerae (classical) 
2. eltor 
Biotypes are further subdivided into serotypes: 
1. ogawa 
2. inaba 
3. hinkojima 
Vibrio cholerae 0139 (Serogroup 0139) Newly recognized in 1992 (classic case of 
an important emerging pathogen) 
Non-agglutinable vibrios (NAGs) or non-cholera vibrios (NCVs) Identical to Vibrio 
cholerae 01, but do not agglutinate in 01 antiserum 
Vibrio parahaemolyticus 
Vibrio vulnificus 
Vibrio alginolyticus 
Vibrio mimicus 
Vibrio hollisae 
Vibrio fluvialis 
Vibrio metchnikovii 
Vibrio damsela 
Vibrio furnisii 
Yersinia spp.(Family Enterobacteriaceae) 
Yersinia enterocolitica Yersinia pestis 
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis